Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia or BPH

Benign prostatic hyperplasia, commonly known as BPH, is a common condition affecting the prostate gland of men as they age. Characterized by the enlargement of the prostate gland, BPH can significantly impact urinary function and quality of life. This enlargement is non-cancerous but can lead to uncomfortable urinary symptoms.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia or BPH.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia, commonly known as BPH, is the enlargement of the prostate gland affecting men as they age. Source.

How common is benign prostatic hyperplasia?

BPH is a very common condition, especially as men age. It is estimated that about half of men over the age of 50 have some degree of benign prostatic hyperplasia, with the number increasing to about 90% of men over 80. Despite its prevalence, not all men with an enlarged prostate experience significant symptom.

What causes benign prostatic hyperplasia?

The exact cause of benign prostatic hyperplasia is not fully understood, but it is believed to be linked to age-related hormonal changes. As men age, hormonal shifts, including a decrease in testosterone and an increase in other hormones like dihydrotestosterone (DHT), may contribute to prostate growth. Factors like genetics and lifestyle may also play a role, with a family history of BPH potentially increasing risk.

What are the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia?

The symptoms of BPH are related to urinary function. As the prostate enlarges in BPH, it can press against the urethra, causing various urinary symptoms. They include frequent urination, especially at night, difficulty starting urination, weak urine stream or a stream that stops and starts, dribbling at the end of urination, inability to completely empty the bladder, and urinary urgency or incontinence. Complications of untreated or advanced BPH can include urinary tract infections, bladder stones, kidney damage, and in severe cases, acute urinary retention requiring emergency treatment.

Can benign prostatic hyperplasia be prevented?

While it is unclear if BPH can be completely prevented, certain lifestyle changes may reduce the risk. Maintaining a healthy weight, regular physical activity, and a balanced diet can be beneficial. Regular medical check-ups are also important for early detection and management of BPH symptoms. It is crucial to consult a healthcare provider for personalized advice on managing and potentially reducing the risk of BPH.

How is benign prostatic hyperplasia diagnosed?

Diagnosis of BPH typically involves a combination of medical history assessment, physical examination, and various tests. The physical exam often includes a digital rectal exam (DRE) to feel the size and shape of the prostate. Diagnostic tests can include a urine test to rule out infection, a blood test to check prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, and sometimes a prostate biopsy. Other tests like uroflowmetry and postvoid residual volume test help evaluate urinary function. BPH is generally categorized based on symptom severity, ranging from mild to severe, rather than different types.

What is BPH symptom score index?

The BPH Symptom Score Index, also known as the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), is a widely used tool for evaluating the severity of symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. This questionnaire assesses urinary symptoms such as frequency, urgency, weak stream, and nocturia. Patients rate each symptom on a scale, with the total score indicating the severity of BPH: mild (0-7), moderate (8-19), or severe (20-35). This tool is essential in diagnosing BPH and monitoring the effectiveness of treatments.

How is benign prostatic hyperplasia treated?

Treatment for BPH varies based on symptom severity. Mild cases may only require lifestyle changes and regular monitoring. Treatment decisions are based on individual symptoms, prostate size, and overall health. Medications, such as alpha-blockers and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, are often used for moderate symptoms. For more severe cases or when medications are not effective, surgical options may be considered. Surgical options for benign prostatic hyperplasia include transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), laser therapy, and newer, less invasive techniques like UroLift or Rezum. These surgeries aim to relieve urinary symptoms by removing or reducing prostate tissue.

What are the side effects of benign prostatic hyperplasia treatment?

Treatment for BPH can have side effects depending on the method used. Medications like alpha-blockers may cause dizziness, headaches, or sexual dysfunction, while 5-alpha reductase inhibitors can result in decreased libido or ejaculation issues. Surgical procedures may lead to risks such as bleeding, infection, or urinary incontinence. Regular monitoring and follow-up treatments may be necessary.

Living with benign prostatic hyperplasia

The prognosis for BPH is generally good. It is a manageable condition that typically does not impact life expectancy. With appropriate treatment, most men can maintain a good quality of life. BPH itself does not cause prostate cancer. The two conditions can coexist due to their common occurrence in older men, but having BPH does not increase the risk of prostate cancer. Benign prostatic hyperplasia can recur, especially if initial treatments are only partially effective or if the prostate continues to grow. Living with BPH involves managing symptoms and maintaining regular medical check-ups. Lifestyle modifications, medication, or surgery can effectively manage symptoms, allowing men with BPH to lead active and comfortable lives. Regular communication with healthcare providers is key to effective management of this condition.


Benign prostatic hyperplasia, or BPH, while a common and often manageable condition, requires careful attention and treatment. Although it does not increase the risk of prostate cancer, its symptoms can significantly impact daily life. With a range of treatment options available, from lifestyle changes to medication and surgery, men with BPH can find relief and maintain a good quality of life. Regular monitoring and communication with healthcare providers are essential in managing BPH effectively. By understanding the condition and staying proactive in its management, living with BPH can be a manageable journey.


  1. Barry MJ, Fowler FJ Jr, O'Leary MP, et al. The American Urological Association symptom index for benign prostatic hyperplasia. J Urol. 1992;148(5):1549-1564. PMID: 1279218.
  2. Sotimehin AE, Haile E, Gill BC. Contemporary surgical and procedural management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Cleve Clin J Med. 2023 Dec 1;90(12):745-753. PMID: 38040442.
  3. Plochocki A, King B. Medical Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Urol Clin North Am. 2022 May;49(2):231-238. PMID: 35428429.
  4. Manov JJ, Mohan PP, Kava B, Bhatia S. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Brief Overview of Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Current State of Therapy. Tech Vasc Interv Radiol. 2020 Sep;23(3):100687. PMID: 33308528.

Disclaimer: This blog post is intended solely for informational purposes, based on the references cited. It is not meant to serve as medical advice. For professional medical guidance, please consult your doctor. 


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