Testicular Cancer

Testicular cancer, while a serious health issue, has one of the highest cure rates among cancers. Understanding testicular cancer, its prevalence, causes, and risk factors is key to early detection and treatment. Despite being a rare form of cancer, its impact on young and middle-aged men makes awareness crucial.

Testicular cancer (Seminoma of the testis).
Testicular cancer (Seminoma of the testis). Source.

What is Testicular Cancer?

Testicular cancer is a type of cancer that originates in the testicles (or testes), which are part of the male reproductive system and responsible for producing sperm and male hormones, primarily testosterone. This cancer typically develops in one or both testicles in the germ cells, which are the cells responsible for producing sperm. 

Testicular cancer is relatively unique compared to other types of cancer due to its high treatability and cure rate. It is broadly categorized into two main types: seminomas, which grow slowly and are sensitive to radiation therapy, and non-seminomas, which are a more diverse group and tend to grow more rapidly.

What is the Difference Between Seminomatous and Non-seminomatous Testicular Cancer?

The difference between seminomatous and non-seminomatous testicular cancer lies primarily in their histological makeup, behavior, and treatment responses. Seminomatous testicular cancer, or seminoma, is a type of germ cell tumor that typically has a uniform cell appearance under the microscope and is known for its slow growth and responsiveness to radiation therapy. Seminomas often present in men in their 30s and 40s and are usually confined to the testes at diagnosis. 

In contrast, non-seminomatous testicular cancers encompass a group of more heterogeneous tumors, including embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, choriocarcinoma, and teratoma. These tend to be more aggressive, grow more rapidly, and can occur at a younger age compared to seminomas. Non-seminomatous tumors are also more likely to produce markers such as AFP (alpha-fetoprotein) and HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin), aiding in their diagnosis. 

Treatment often involves chemotherapy, which tends to be highly effective. The distinction between these two types is crucial as it influences the approach to treatment and overall management of the disease.

How Common is Testicular Cancer?

Testicular cancer is relatively uncommon when compared to other types of cancer. It accounts for about 1% of all cancers in men. However, it is the most common cancer in young and middle-aged men, typically affecting those between the ages of 15 and 35. 

Despite its rarity, the incidence of testicular cancer has been increasing in many countries over the past few decades. Fortunately, it has one of the highest cure rates of all cancers, with a 5-year survival rate exceeding 95%.

What Causes Testicular Cancer?

The exact cause of testicular cancer is not well understood, but it begins when healthy cells in a testicle become altered. These cells grow and divide uncontrollably, forming a mass in the testicle. Several factors may influence this change, but specific causes are still unclear. Unlike many other cancers, there are no known lifestyle-related or environmental causes of testicular cancer.

What are the Risk Factors for Testicular Cancer?

Several factors have been identified that can increase a man's risk of developing testicular cancer. One significant risk factor is having an undescended testicle (cryptorchidism), a condition where the testicles do not descend into the scrotum normally before birth. A family history of testicular cancer also plays a role, as having relatives with the disease increases an individual's risk. 

Age is another important factor; although testicular cancer can occur at any age, it is most commonly seen in men between the ages of 15 and 35. Racial and ethnic background influences risk as well, with the cancer being more common in white men compared to men of other races. 

Additionally, men who have previously had testicular cancer in one testicle are at an increased risk of developing it in the other testicle. Certain health conditions, including HIV infection, may also elevate the risk of developing testicular cancer. Understanding these risk factors is crucial for early detection and prompt treatment.

Can I Prevent Testicular Cancer?

Currently, there are no proven strategies for preventing testicular cancer. This is largely due to the fact that most of the known risk factors, such as family history, race, and an undescended testicle, cannot be controlled. However, early detection is crucial. Men are encouraged to perform regular self-examinations to become familiar with the normal size and feel of their testicles, which can help identify any changes early. 

Those with known risk factors, like a history of an undescended testicle or a family history of testicular cancer, should be particularly vigilant and discuss any concerns with their healthcare provider.

What are the Signs and Symptoms of Testicular Cancer?

Testicular cancer can present several signs and symptoms, the most common being a lump or enlargement in either testicle. Other symptoms may include a feeling of heaviness or aching in the lower abdomen or scrotum, a sudden collection of fluid in the scrotum, pain or discomfort in a testicle or the scrotum, and back pain. 

Some men may experience tenderness or changes in the way the testicle feels. It is important to note that not all lumps or irregularities in the testicles are cancerous, but any changes should be evaluated by a doctor.

How is Testicular Cancer Diagnosed?

The diagnosis of testicular cancer typically begins with a physical examination of the testicles. If a doctor suspects cancer, an ultrasound of the testicles is usually the next step to examine for tumors. Blood tests may be ordered to check for high levels of certain proteins, known as tumor markers, which can indicate testicular cancer.

What are the Tumor Markers or Biochemical Markers of Testicular Cancer?

Tumor markers or biochemical markers play a pivotal role in the diagnosis and management of testicular cancer. The most significant markers for testicular cancer are Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG), and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH). AFP is often elevated in non-seminomatous germ cell tumors, particularly yolk sac tumors, but it is not usually raised in pure seminomas. 

HCG, particularly its beta subunit (β-HCG), can be elevated in both seminomas and non-seminomas, often correlating with the presence of choriocarcinoma elements or extensive tumor burden. LDH is a less specific marker but can be useful in gauging the tumor's size and response to treatment, as its levels often reflect tumor volume. 

Monitoring these markers is crucial not just for diagnosis but also for tracking the effectiveness of treatment and detecting any recurrence of the disease post-treatment. Their levels can guide the choice of therapy and provide prognostic information, making them essential tools in the clinical management of testicular cancer.

How is Testicular Cancer Treated?

The treatment for testicular cancer is highly effective and varies depending on the stage and type of cancer. If found early, the primary treatment is usually orchidectomy, which is the surgical removal of the affected testicle. Additional treatments may include radiation therapy or chemotherapy, especially if the cancer has spread beyond the testicle. 

In cases where cancer is detected early and is a seminoma type (a slower-growing form of testicular cancer), radiation therapy may be the only additional treatment needed. For non-seminomas and more advanced cancers, chemotherapy is often the preferred additional treatment. In some cases, further surgery, called retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, may be required to remove lymph nodes or other areas where the cancer has spread.

What is Primary Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection for Testicular Cancer?

Primary Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection (RPLND) is a surgical procedure specifically used in the initial treatment phase for certain types of testicular cancer, particularly non-seminomatous germ cell tumors. This surgery is performed when there is a high risk of cancer spread to the retroperitoneal lymph nodes, which are located in the back of the abdomen. 

The primary goal of primary RPLND is to remove these lymph nodes to both treat and assess the extent of the cancer spread. Unlike post-chemotherapy RPLND, primary RPLND is typically carried out before any systemic treatment like chemotherapy, usually when the cancer is in its early stages and confined to the lymph nodes. This approach helps in determining the accurate stage of the disease and can potentially eliminate the need for chemotherapy if no cancer is found in the lymph nodes.

What is Postchemotherapy Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection for Testicular Cancer

Postchemotherapy Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection (RPLND) is a critical surgical procedure in the management of testicular cancer, particularly after completing a standard chemotherapy regimen like BEP (Bleomycin, Etoposide, and Cisplatin). This surgery is typically considered for patients with non-seminomatous germ cell tumors who have undergone chemotherapy and have residual masses in the retroperitoneal lymph nodes. 

The primary aim of postchemotherapy RPLND is to remove these residual masses, which may consist of non-cancerous scar tissue, persistent cancer cells, or a mature teratoma that does not respond to chemotherapy. The surgery is crucial for accurate staging and to ensure complete removal of any remaining malignant tissue, thereby reducing the risk of cancer recurrence. The decision to perform postchemotherapy RPLND is based on the response to the BEP chemotherapy regimen, characterized by the size and characteristics of the residual tumor. 

Due to the complexities introduced by previous chemotherapy, such as altered anatomical structures and potential scar tissue, postchemotherapy RPLND requires considerable surgical expertise and careful planning.

What are the Side Effects of Testicular Cancer Treatment?

Testicular cancer treatments, while effective, can bring various side effects. Surgery, typically involving the removal of a testicle, can lead to pain and a feeling of imbalance in the scrotum, but it rarely affects sexual function or fertility. Chemotherapy, a common treatment especially for advanced testicular cancer, can cause nausea, fatigue, hair loss, increased susceptibility to infections, and, in some cases, may affect fertility. 

Radiation therapy, used primarily for seminomas, might lead to fatigue, skin irritation in the treated area, and also carries a risk of infertility. Long-term side effects of treatment can include hormonal changes due to the removal of a testicle, and an increased risk of developing other types of cancer later in life. Fertility preservation options, like sperm banking, should be discussed with a healthcare provider before starting treatment.

Can Testicular Cancer Come Back?

Yes, testicular cancer can recur, though it is not common. The risk of recurrence is higher in the first few years after treatment, which is why regular follow-up visits are crucial. These visits typically include physical exams, blood tests for tumor markers, and imaging tests. If cancer does recur, it is most often treatable with good outcomes, especially when detected early. 

Treatment for recurrent testicular cancer may involve chemotherapy, radiation, or surgery, depending on the individual case and where the cancer has recurred.

What is the Prognosis and Survival for Testicular Cancer?

The prognosis for testicular cancer is generally very good, particularly when it is caught early. The overall 5-year survival rate for testicular cancer is over 95%, and even for the relatively few cases that are in advanced stages, the survival rate remains high. Factors affecting prognosis include the type and stage of cancer at diagnosis, response to treatment, and levels of tumor markers after treatment. Regular follow-ups are important for monitoring health and ensuring any recurrence is caught early.

Living with Testicular Cancer

Living with and after testicular cancer can involve physical, emotional, and psychological challenges. Adjusting to life during and after treatment includes managing side effects, concerns about fertility and sexuality, and dealing with the emotional impact of a cancer diagnosis. Support from healthcare professionals, counseling, and support groups can be beneficial. 

Maintaining a healthy lifestyle with regular exercise and a balanced diet can help manage stress and improve overall well-being. Many men find that returning to normal activities and work can bring a sense of normalcy and control. It is also important to stay informed about your health and remain proactive in follow-up care.


Testicular cancer, while a concerning diagnosis, is among the most treatable and curable forms of cancer, especially when detected early. While prevention may not be possible, awareness of risk factors and symptoms, along with regular self-examinations, plays a key role in early detection. The available treatments are highly effective, and the prognosis for most men with testicular cancer is very good. With the right approach and medical care, individuals diagnosed with testicular cancer can successfully navigate through treatment and recovery.

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Further Reading

  1. Chovanec M, Cheng L. Advances in diagnosis and treatment of testicular cancer. BMJ. 2022;379:e0704991.
  2. Xu P, Wang J, Abudurexiti M, Jin S, Wu J, Shen Y, et al. Prognosis of Patients With Testicular Carcinoma Is Dependent on Metastatic Site. Front Oncol. 2019;9:14952.
  3. Bimbatti D, Lai E, Pierantoni F, Maruzzo M, Msaki A, De Toni C, et al. Cancer survivorship in testicular cancer survivors. Patient Prefer Adherence. 20233.
  4. Colombo F, Gentile G, Franceschelli A. Testicular Pathology. In: Clinical Management of Male Infertility. SpringerLink. 20144.
  5. Murray MJ, Scarpini CG, Pearce AK, Msaki A, Dionese M, Feltrin A, et al. Patient-Reported Outcomes for Testicular Cancer Treatments. Patient Prefer Adherence. 20235.

Disclaimer: This blog post is intended solely for informational purposes. It is not meant to serve as medical advice. For professional medical guidance, please consult your doctor.


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