What are the Benefits and Risks of Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer?

Prostate cancer is a complex disease with numerous treatment options. One such approach, particularly for low-risk cases, is active surveillance. 

This involves closely monitoring the cancer without immediate treatment, intervening only when necessary. 

This blog post will explore the benefits and risks associated with active surveillance for prostate cancer.

Understanding Active Surveillance

Active surveillance is often recommended for men with low-risk prostate cancer that is not causing any symptoms and is expected to grow very slowly. 

This approach involves regular monitoring of the cancer's progression through prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood tests, digital rectal exams (DRE), and potentially other tests such as MRI or biopsies. 

The aim is to avoid or delay side effects of treatment without compromising life expectancy.

Benefits of Active Surveillance

Treatments such as surgery and radiation therapy can cause side effects such as urinary incontinence, erectile dysfunction, and bowel problems. 

Active surveillance allows patients to avoid or delay these side effects. By delaying or avoiding treatment side effects, men on active surveillance can maintain their current quality of life for longer. 

Not all prostate cancers are life-threatening. Many grow very slowly and may never cause problems or shorten a man's life. Active surveillance helps avoid unnecessary treatments in such cases.

Risks of Active Surveillance

Regular testing and the knowledge that cancer is present in the body can cause significant stress and anxiety for some men. 

There is a risk that the cancer could grow and spread between check-ups, making it harder to treat. Regular monitoring and communication with your healthcare provider are crucial to managing this risk. 

If the cancer shows signs of progress, more aggressive treatment may be needed. There is a small risk that delayed treatment could be less effective, particularly if the cancer has spread beyond the prostate.

Who is a Good Candidate for Active Surveillance?

Active surveillance is generally recommended for men with low-risk prostate cancer, characterized by a low PSA level, a Gleason score of 6 or less, and cancer that is confined to the prostate. 

Other factors, such as age, overall health, and personal preference, also play a role in this decision.


Active surveillance for prostate cancer is a patient-centric approach that aims to balance the risks and side effects of treatment with the potential benefits. 

This strategy may help many men avoid or delay the side effects of more aggressive treatments, preserving their quality of life without compromising their health. 

However, it is a decision that should be made after thorough discussion with the healthcare team, considering all the benefits, risks, and individual health circumstances.


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